Our top “most wanted” lists by groups of species include those species that have been lost to science for at least a decade (and often for much longer!) and, like our top 25 “most wanted” species, may be lost for a variety of reasons. We worked with various IUCN Species Survival Commission Specialist Groups and other partners to determine these lists of flagship species. In some cases, biologists may be actively out searching—or interested in going out to search—for these species. In other cases, these species represent the kinds of compelling stories that can help raise their group’s public profile, even if nobody is out actively looking. They represent a broad geographical reach, and may present opportunities for inspiring conservation action.

 Illustration by Toni Llobet from: Wilson, D.E., Lacher, T.E., Jr & Mittermeier, R.A. eds. (2016).  Handbook of the Mammals of the World . Vol. 6. Lagomorphs and Rodents I. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Fernandina Galápagos Tortoise

Scientific name: Chelonoidis phantasticus

Last seen: 1906 in the Galápagos

Years lost: 112

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Only one individual Fernandina Galápagos Tortoise has ever been found—on Fernandina Island, the youngest and least-explored of the Galápagos Islands. Could a large tortoise go undetected on an island? According to Himalayan mountaineering legend Eric Shipton, the odds of rediscovering a Fernandina Tortoise are at least better than those of finding a Yeti. An expedition in 1964 discovered putative tortoise droppings, and a fly-over in 2009 reported sightings of something tortoise-like from the air, renewing hope that this species may yet be holding on.

 Illustrations by Toni Llobet from: Wilson, D.E., Lacher, T.E., Jr & Mittermeier, R.A. eds. (2017).  Handbook of the Mammals of the World . Vol. 7. Rodents II. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Viesca Mud Turtle

Scientific name: Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalum

Last seen: 1961

Years lost: 57

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The Viesca Mud Turtle is currently classified as a subspecies of the Rough-footed Mud Turtle, though some researchers have considered it to represent its own species. It was last seen in the Coahuila state of Mexico, though its range could potentially extend from Coahuila into nearby Durango as well. It has been presumed extinct since about 1970, but scientists have been unable to do thorough field studies in the area due to safety concerns.

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Nubian Flapshell Turtle

Scientific name: cyclanorbis elegans

Last seen: about 2000 – 2 traded specimens, ended up in a private collection in New York, now both deceased

Years lost: 18

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The Nubian Flapshell Turtle was last seen nearly two decades ago. Two individuals were collected from West Africa in 2000 and ended up in a private collection. Since then, no surveys of its range have successfully recovered any individuals, though local fishermen have reported unconfirmed sightings. It is thought to inhabit large rivers in the Sahel zone of Africa, specifically in parts of Ghana and Togo, and various regions east to South Sudan.    

 © Joe Flanagan

© Joe Flanagan

Pinta Island Tortoise

Scientific name: chelonoidis abingdonii

Last seen: Lonesome George, and remains of a female shell, found in the wild in 1972; Lonesome George died in captivity 2012

Years lost: 46

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The last known Pinta Island Tortoise, the famous “Lonesome George” at the Charles Darwin Research Station, died in June 2012 after 40 years in captivity, thus rendering the species extinct. Field Surveys of Pinta Island have not found any other individuals of this species, though hybrids exist near Volcan Wolf on the northern part of Isabela Island. Some of the hybrids found in 2013 were juveniles, and researchers believe that one adult might have full C. abingdoni DNA.

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Floreana Island Tortoise

Scientific name: Chelonoidis niger

Last seen: about 1850

Years lost: 160+

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The Floreana Galapagos Tortoise has been considered extinct since 1850, though hybridized tortoises of this species have been found on the northern region of Isabela Island near Volcan Wolf.  It’s estimated that early populations of this species reached numbers as high as 8,000 individuals in the earlier half of the 19th century, and were driven to extinction by 1850 presumably by mariners that needed sustenance and sources for oil.

 

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Chinese Red-necked Turtle

Scientific name: Mauremys nigricans

Last seen: Still alive in captivity

Years lost: n/a

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Rampant pet collection and trade has driven the Chinese Red-necked Turtle, one of the rarest aquatic species in China, to near or possible extinction in the wild. The species’ habitat, forested hill streams of southern China, is also at risk with the threat of degradation in the area. Field surveys in its possible range will determine how many individuals remain in the wild, and whether suitable habitat persists where the re-introduction of captive-bred Individuals could potentially recover this species into the wild.

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Roti Snake-necked Turtle

Scientific name: Chelodina mccordi

Last seen: Still alive in captivity; a population of the different subspecies C. m. timorensis persists in Timor-Leste.

Years lost: n/a

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The Roti Snake-necked Turtle’s population has been jeopardized over the last couple of decades as a direct result of the pet trade’s insatiable appetite for this exclusive species . It is only known to have existed on the Indonesian Island of Roti and in Timor-Leste, although recent field surveys in Roti have failed to find any individuals of this particular species. A subspecies of C. mccordi has persisted in Timor-Leste and island leaders have declared its habitat protected under their traditional laws. Captive breeding groups of the Roti form exist and it should be possible that this species will be recovered through reintroduction into suitable habitat once that is securely protected from poaching.  


This entire group of Chinese Box turtles has possibly gone extinct as a result of the unbridled over-collection for the international pet trade. Despite many field surveys in search of these turtles, scientists have not ever found several in the wild, yet they exist in captivity and still on occasion appear in trade. Little is known about most of these species, for some, even their country of origin remains a mystery. According to Peter Paul van Dijk, deputy chair of the IUCN SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, “the chances of a biologist finding one of the Chinese Cuora in the wild is akin to finding a ten-carat diamond on a beach.”

 © Torsten Blanck

© Torsten Blanck

Yunnan Box Turtle

Scientific name: Cuora yunnanensis

Last seen: 2004

Years lost: 18

 © Torsten Blanck

© Torsten Blanck

Zhou's Box Turtle

Scientific name: Cuora zhoui

Last seen: still alive in captivity

Years lost: n/a

 © Torsten Blanck

© Torsten Blanck

McCord's Box Turtle

Scientific name: cuora mccordi

Last seen: 1980s

Years lost: 30+

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 © Eric Goode

© Eric Goode

Golden-headed Box Turtle

Scientific name: cuuora aurocapitata

Last seen: ?

Years lost: ?

 © Torsten Blanck

© Torsten Blanck

Three-striped Box Turtle

Scientific name: cuora trifasciata

Last seen: ?

Years lost: ?

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